The history of plastic surgery can be divided into two stages: by the end the XIX century and after. All the operations of modern plastic surgery was first performed between 1840 and 1900, when the surgery was at it’s origin.
The first patients, with a few exceptions, were men and this fact is rarely taken into account in the consideration the history of plastic surgery. But what can explain explosive growth of interest by representatives of both sexes to plastic surgery and appearance many of innovations during this period of time?
Up to the XIX century with the advent of antiseptic agents (precluding the infection possibility) in 1867 and anesthesia (relieving the pain) in 1846 the surgical interventions was used only in cases of extreme necessity. Plastic surgery was required of new discoveries.
From the Ancient Egypt to the Renaissance
Scars have always been one of the undesirable results of surgical intervention. In accordance with Papyrus Documents of Edwin Smith (1600 BC), the ancient Egyptian surgeons were also concerned about the results of their operations. The Papyrus Documents are replicas of the ancient records made by the Egyptians in the third millennium BC. The Egyptian doctors were very careful during the suturing after surgeries on face. Even for fractures and other deformations of nose, “sutures were placed with using the melted fat and two tampon from flax,” which were inserted into the nostrils. The Roman scientist Aulus Cornelius Celsus (1st c. AD) has also noted the importance of “beautiful” seam. In ancient China, as in ancient Egypt and ancient Greece, were found the first records made on the bones (14st. BC), where were mentioned the facts of operations on the nose (the rhinoplasty).
The ancient Chinese healer Bian Que (5st. BC) left behind documents that describe the operations on the ears and eyes of patients. In addition, the famous Chinese doctor Hua Tuo (150-208 years. BC) led very detailed notes on such operations. The traditional prohibition in China on any surgical intervention in the human body constrained the development of plastic surgery until the last few decades. Only during the Tang and Song dynasties (mid-10th century) started to appear the records about the plastic operations for corrective “cleft lip”.
The Alexandrian Doctor Paulos Aydzhinsky in the seventh century has carried out the operations to remove extra structures on the male breast, believing such displays of physical deviations, which can be corrected only with plastic surgery. This disease was called gynecomastia (female breasts). Such operations for reduce too large breasts in men carried out in our days.
At the Middle Ages, plastic surgery was viewed as the only way to remedy the various pathologies: physical and psychological disorders were considered in inseparable connection with each other. Still, damages of the nose and other parts of the body were the result of hostilities, accidents and different diseases of the Middle Ages. It was assumed that a person can live without some body parts, although one will feel partially incapacitated. Only in the Renaissance by surgeons was allocated the plastic surgery or as it was called – “beauty surgery” as a separate area of medicine.
The Age of Enlightenment: happiness as the main purpose of Plastic Surgery.
After resolving the problems associated with pain feelings and infection the plastic surgery has been further developed. Although anesthesia and antisepsis were very important discoveries, but not they were the beginning of modern plastic surgery. With the advent the Age of Enlightenment in the XIX century, anyone got a chance to change themselves in the pursuit of happiness, which served as the basis for the development of modern plastic surgery.
In fact, can be seen with surprise how often plastic surgery puts the overall objective the acquisition of happiness. More active life can make a person happier. Such tendencies were reflected in the changes occurring in the consciousness of all people and every person. “The ability to use your mind without fear is the motto of the Age of Enlightenment” – said Kant (1724-1804), referring the ability to change themselves. However, plastic surgery is a relatively a new phenomenon, which requires not only implementation of new techniques, but also presupposing the historical and the cultural background to the inalienable right to modify, adjust, increase or decrease the size of the body, of course, with help of surgeon. The independence for which so actively stands plastic surgery is a phenomenon which is unique for the present: you can set ourselves any targets to feel yourself happy, but only with help of professionals who are ready to offer you all kinds of towards their achievement.
Plastic surgery – from the reconstruction to sexual attractiveness.
The transition from reconstructive surgery which correct the consequences of diseases to the surgery which restore the sexual attractiveness occurred in 1930. During the First World War have appeared new surgical techniques which made possible to carry out operations for the restoration of sexual functions.
A variation and complexity of the plastic operations has increased significantly as a result of many discoveries made during the operations both in hostilities and in rear.
Still the public stigma of being put to a patient who apply for help from plastic surgeons became more and more obvious to the extent as grew quantity of operations and other medical interventions.
Surgery of the beauty.
In the period after the First World War a central place in plastic surgery occupied two seemingly mutually contradictory directions, the protagonist of which was a woman. Namely – the operations to increase the size of the breast (mammoplasty) on the one side and the operations to remove the excess fat (liposuction) on the other. Indeed, if first patients of plastic surgeons were mostly male then in 1920 these operations were called “Surgery of the beaty” for women.