According to the World Health Organization (WHO), at the beginning of the millennium annually in road accidents worldwide died more than 1 million 200 thousand people. In 2000, traffic accidents were the ninth leading cause of morbidity and mortality of inhabitants of planet Earth, while they accounted for about 3% of total disability in the world. WHO predicts that if no action is taken, by 2020 traumatism from road accidents could become the third leading cause of death or injury and become more serious problem for human health than malaria, tuberculosis and HIV / AIDS combined.
Pleases that many highly developed countries have managed to reduce the consequences of their accidents (injury and disability from automobile accidents), by almost 50 percent. This became possible due to both measures, which increases traffic safety and by timely and adequate traumatic care. If previously, many cases of injuries lead to disabilities, it is now a modern traumatology is able to recover human health even in case of heavy car, sports and other injuries.
Special attention is given to injuries situation around a sport leisure activities. Occupational accidents in sports enthusiasts, unfortunately, common. But fortunately, serious injuries occur here quite rare. For example, injuries of spinal cord – less than 1 case per 1,000 of the adult population, with of men among such patients – around 75%. The peak of sporting injuries among amateurs and professionals occurring among young people aged 30 years and 90% of patients – at the age of 20-40 years. Some types of injuries are mainly athletic. Thus, about 80% cases injuries of a meniscus related to sports and sport recreation.
There is also the concept of a “typical athletic injury”, which occur in certain types of sports and recreation, such as:
- fractures of collar bone after falling from a bike or horse;
- fractures of navicular bone in handball amateurs;
- tension and knee injuries in a fall from rotating during skiing or playing football;
- achilles tendon ruptures during downhill skiing;
- tension and injuries in the ankle joint in many sports.
There are and occasional sport injuries that are relatively rare and typical for many sports. The basic mechanisms of their formation are only two:
- repetitive microtraumas from incorrect load;
- overload of locomotor system.
The frequency of sports injuries is about 5% and it’s pretty much. However, this index applies only to those who contacted the clinic or doctor and the figure of the real injuries becomes much higher: approximately one in five sportsman gets injured. Well, considering the usual bruises typical of many sports, the figure may exceed the 50% mark. It all depends on the sport.
So what has changed in medicine in general and in Orthopaedic Surgery in particular? On the one hand, medicine has become sparing, that is the slightest opportunity to save an injured organ, it is saved, and every effort is made for its complete recovery. Really, who at last centuries was conceived about the possibility to sew a cut finger? On the other hand, scientific progress today the most actively works on the healthcare: publications are full of news about the newest technologies in prosthetics, new microsurgical methods of restoration an affected function. For example, an artificial joint when viewed now, and most importantly in everyday life is indistinguishable from the natural, because implantable prostheses are made of biologically compatible materials, and considering huge number of scientific knowledge in biomechanics, to say nothing of newest developments in surgery.
Well and when it comes to microsurgical operations on the joints, then after surgical intervention it is possible that you will not see the tracks, as the entire operation is carried out through a small puncture in the skin. Because of the low traumatic character and the highest effectiveness of operations, the patient is able to leave the clinic and return to normal life on the next day already.
Difficult fractures that previously leaded to the disabilities or chained to the bed for a long time also quite successfully are treated with modern methods and materials. For example, if earlier difficult splintered fractures at the best leaded to a semiannual wearing of gypsum, today these terms are reduced by 3-4 times due to the installation temporary or permanent implants and other advanced treatments.
Plaster of Paris now is not the basic but additional method of immobilization and treatment of injuries and traumas. Normal scalpel is not basic but an additional tool of the surgeon today . Major Appliances – endoscopic, basic materials – biologically noble implants, the basic methods – microsurgical with using computer technologies as in the diagnostics as well as in treatment. The modern medicine is moving forward extremely fast and many methods of treatment fractures and injuries for several years, experienced significant changes. Therefore, a highly qualified assistance is possible only in the specialized clinics with great experience.