Face is one of the most important parts of our body. It primarily defines the appearance of a person, participates in the major life functions such as breathing, eating and fellowship. Among the main facial bones – the upper and lower jaw. Along with the other bones they support the soft tissue for aesthetic contours of the face. They are directly responsible for the chewing function and diction.
If there is a disproportion between the upper and lower jaws as a result of external factors during the growth process, hereditary causes or injuries, it leads to violations of chewing function, speech, and most importantly, grossly violates the aesthetics of the face.The causes of jaws injuries.
There are set of jaws injuries:
- excessively active use of the jaw (eg., constant chewing gums);
- diseases of the jaw joints, such as osteoarthritis;
- compressing and erasing of teeth during sleep or wakefulness (bruxism);
- the problems of occlusion;
- the shortage of teeth;
- spasms of chewing muscles and neck muscles as a result of stress or panic condition.
Many diseases of the jaw joints can cause problems also in other joints:
- rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis);
- collagen diseases;
- different atrophy;
- problems of development;
- injuries of face and of jaws;
- fracture of the condyle (thickening or projections of the bone epiphysis that serve for the attachment of muscles). Usually this injury happens with children, falling on the chin.
The modern Orthodontics allows to correct violations of occlusion, bite, align dentitions. But in the case of pronounced disproportions of jaws the successful orthodontics is impossible without surgery. Orthognathic surgery (ortho – correct, gnathic – jaws) allows achieving harmony of the face by increasing or decreasing one or both jaws, changing of jaws in different planes, including the treatment of “the gingival” smile. The operation is carried out under general anesthesia the degree of risk at such an operation to date is small. During the surgery the jaw is fixed in the new, predefined position by titanium mini-plates and titanium screws. They shall remain in patient’s bone. Only if they interfere or have been infected, they can be removed. If the patient does not feel any discomfort, the plates remain in their places. During the surgery, all incisions are performed inside the oral cavity. The interference from the outside is not required.
In most cases required three-stage treatment:
- Within 1-6 months an Orthodontist prepare dentitions for surgery ;
- Stage of the operation;
- Final postoperative orthodontic correction.
The combination of Orthognathic surgery with using permanently affixed orthodontic appliances (bracket system) allows to achieve the optimal aesthetic and functional results.
Orthognatic surgery videos: